C2 Biotechnologies (C2B) is a Limited Liability Company (LLC) formed in Ulster County, New York, in 2006 that uses biotechnology to improve the quality of life.

Initial motivation and technology for C2B start up operations was provided by protein engineering expert Dr. Larry Cosenza. The
technology platform, fusion enzyme, is based on Dr. Cosenza’s graduate experiences in Dr. Murphy’s laboratory. The technology encompasses genetically fusing two or more different genes while maintaining translational reading frames.  The result is a single enzyme molecule with multiple biological activities. By performing the selection of enzymes in conjunction with industrial operating parameters C2B can produce materials with multiple biological activities designed for specific processes. Combining multiple activities into a single enzyme reduces manufacturing and client operating costs.

The first product prototype developed was an amylase fusion enzyme. The amylase fusion enzyme was designed to operate over a wider range of temperatures compared to current market products and was developed based on a small market survey of ethanol producers in the USA. Process design and scale of operation for each ethanol producer generates unique operating parameters.
Some parameters are more difficult to control then others, including reaching and maintaining uniform target temperatures during operation. Fusing amylases with different optimal operating temperatures is C2B’s molecular biology solution for such industrial processes.

The first amylase fusion enzyme was designed in Dr. Cosenza’s basement laboratory. Development of an amylase fusion enzyme required a small molecular biology laboratory equipped with a bench top centrifuge, gel electrophoresis apparatus, refrigerators and freezers. The equipment was purchased with funds provided by family members. A sequence was designed on paper and then
synthesized by a third party. The actual DNA manipulations were performed by Dr. Cosenza. The result was an amylase fusion enzyme that operated over temperatures ranging from 70C to 100C.

Shortly after completion of the amylase fusion enzyme C2B successfully competed for SBIR Phase I funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a cellulosic fusion enzyme. The development process improved as well as the number of prototype products produced. These early developments formed the core technologies that fostered C2B’s growth and the development.